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Hepatitis viruses

Section Editor: Alan McLachlan, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA 
Deputy Section Editor: Susan Uprichard, Loyola University Medical Center​​​​​​​, USA 

The Hepatitis viruses section of Virology Journal includes studies relating to all aspects of hepatitis A, B C, D and E virus research including research discoveries addressing both basic and medical aspects of the biology of these human pathogens. Basic research topics of interest include all aspects of the viral life cycle (e.g. viral entry, intracellular capsid transport and disassembly, viral gene expression/regulation, protein processing/regulation, viral genome replication, particle assembly and egress) and viral-host interactions. Medical research topics of interest include but are not limited to viral pathogenesis, epidemiology, immunology, therapies and emergence of drug-resistant variants.

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  1. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a nonenveloped RNA virus causing hepatitis E worldwide. The increase in transfusion-transmitted cases of HEV infections from asymptomatic blood donors causing serious illnesses among...

    Authors: Ping Fu, Baochai Lin, Bingting Wu, Ling Ke, Tianfu Yang, Yue’e Du, Lishan Cheng, Zhou Li, Tiancheng Li and Yu Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:141

    Content type: Research

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  2. All commercial Hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) assays use a combination of recombinant antigens to detect antibody response. Antibody responses to individual antigenic regions (core, NS3/4 and NS5) used ...

    Authors: Xinyi Jiang, Le Chang, Ying Yan, Huimin Ji, Huizhen Sun, Fei Guo and Lunan Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:137

    Content type: Research

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  3. Recent studies suggest that lncRNAs may play significant roles in the development of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, as a special stage of HBV infection, the lncRNA expression in occult HBV infecti...

    Authors: Qingqin Hao, Zheng Wang, Qinghui Wang, Bo Chen, Huizhong Qian, Xiao Liu, Hong Cao, Wei Xia, Jian Jiang and Zhonghua Lu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:125

    Content type: Research

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  4. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family that has limited tissue and species specificity. Due to the persistence of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in host cell...

    Authors: Ruirui Xu, Pingping Hu, Yuwen Li, Anran Tian, Jun Li and Chuanlong Zhu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:105

    Content type: Review

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  5. Gene delivery of antiviral therapeutics to anatomical sites where viruses accumulate and persist is a promising approach for the next generation of antiviral therapies. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AA...

    Authors: Rossana Colón-Thillet, Keith R. Jerome and Daniel Stone

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:85

    Content type: Review

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  6. Liver cancer has become one of the most common cancers and has a high mortality rate. Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common liver cancers, and its occurrence and development process are associated...

    Authors: Jinyan Xie, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Shun Chen, XinXin Zhao, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Shaqiu Zhang, Qihui Luo, Yin Wang, Zhiwen Xu, Zhengli Chen, Ling Zhu…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:74

    Content type: Review

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  7. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is difficult to cure. HBV-specific immune tolerance plays a key role in HBV persistence, and enhancing cellular and humoral immunity will improve the control of HBV infection....

    Authors: Tingyu Lan, Zhiqiang Wei, Yulin He, Song Wan, Li Liu, Bin Cheng, Ruimin Li, Hongxia Chen, Guohua Liu and Zhongji Meng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:37

    Content type: Research

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  8. Coinfections of HIV-positive individuals with Hepatitis B and D virus (HBV and HDV) are common and can be associated with rapid liver damage. Several antiretroviral drugs for HIV exhibit anti-HBV effect; howev...

    Authors: Oluyinka Oladele Opaleye, Olusola Anuoluwapo Akanbi, Folakemi Abiodun Osundare, Bo Wang, Olufisayo Adesina, Adeolu Sunday Oluremi, Sola Thomas Sunday, Abiodun Akeem Akindele, Patrycja Klink and C. Thomas Bock

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:20

    Content type: Research

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  9. In China, more than 20 million patients with chronic hepatitis B need antiviral treatment. Side effects of antiviral treatment such as renal complications can be problematic, particularly in an aging population.

    Authors: Jueqing Gu, Guodong Yu, Xiaoli Zhang, Shanyan Zhang, Huan Cai, Chanyuan Ye, Yida Yang, Dezhou Li, Zhaowei Tong, Huajiang Shen, Huazhong Chen, Feng Ding, Xijie Lai, Junyan Liu, Meiling Xu and Weiti Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:19

    Content type: Research

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  10. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the leading causes of acute, chronic and occult hepatitis (OBI) representing a serious public health threat. Cytokines are known to be important chemical mediators that re...

    Authors: Camilla Rodrigues de Almeida Ribeiro, Nathalia Alves Araújo de Almeida, Katrini Guidolini Martinelli, Marcia Amendola Pires, Carlos Eduardo Brandao Mello, José J. Barros and Vanessa Salete de Paula

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:15

    Content type: Research

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  11. Serum hepatitis B virus RNA (HBV RNA) has been reported to be a surrogate marker of intrahepatic cccDNA during nucleos(t)ide analogs therapy. However, in HBeAg-positive patients treated with peg-interferon (pe...

    Authors: Xiaomei Wang, Xiumei Chi, Ruihong Wu, Hongqin Xu, Xiuzhu Gao, Lei Yu, Longgen Liu, Mingxiang Zhang, Youwen Tan, Junqi Niu and Qinglong Jin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:4

    Content type: Research

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  12. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes significant morbidity and mortality globally primarily due to its ability to cause hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Kenya National Blood Transfusion S...

    Authors: Patrick Okoti Aluora, Margaret Wangui Muturi and George Gachara

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:176

    Content type: Research

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  13. Despite available treatments, a prophylactic HCV vaccine is needed to achieve elimination targets. HCV vaccine development has faltered largely because the extreme diversity of the virus limits the protective ...

    Authors: Alexander I. Mosa, Mounir G. AbouHaidar, Richard A. Urbanowicz, John E. Tavis, Jonathan K. Ball and Jordan J. Feld

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:140

    Content type: Short report

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  14. Chronic hepatitis B has become a major public health problem in China. An accurate depiction of the disease burden has not yet been thoroughly conducted. We aimed to project the disease burden of chronic hepat...

    Authors: Yang Zheng, Jie Wu, Cheng Ding, Kaijin Xu, Shigui Yang and Lanjuan Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:132

    Content type: Research

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  15. There has been little published data on estimates of HBV and/or HCV coinfection in HIV-positive patients in China or an understanding of how this coinfection varies with different factors. Therefore, this stud...

    Authors: Songxia Yu, Chengbo Yu, Jian Li, Shiming Liu, Haowen Wang and Min Deng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:127

    Content type: Review

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  16. HIV-infected patients have immunological and clinical features that might affect the pathogenesis, as well as the outcome of the HIV/HEV co-infection. The current study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of...

    Authors: Reza Shahriarirad, Amirhossein Erfani, Mohammad Rastegarian, Ali Zeighami, Nasir Arefkhah, Fariba Ghorbani, Jamal Sarvari and Bahador Sarkari

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:109

    Content type: Research

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  17. Notwithstanding the efforts of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for the treatment of chronically infected hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients, concerns exist regarding the emergence of resistance-associated substi...

    Authors: Valeria Caputo, Roberta Antonia Diotti, Enzo Boeri, Hamid Hasson, Michela Sampaolo, Elena Criscuolo, Sabrina Bagaglio, Emanuela Messina, Caterina Uberti-Foppa, Matteo Castelli, Roberto Burioni, Nicasio Mancini, Massimo Clementi and Nicola Clementi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:103

    Content type: Research

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  18. SLC10A1 gene codes NTCP, a receptor through which the hepatitis B virus (HBV) gets access into hepatocytes - a stage of the viral cycle necessary for replication. Polymorphism variants of SLC10A1 play roles in...

    Authors: Eric Nyarko, Christian Obirikorang, W. K. B. A. Owiredu, Evans Asamoah Adu, Emmanuel Acheampong, Freeman Aidoo, Emmanuel Ofori, Bright Selorm Addy and Henry Asare-Anane

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:91

    Content type: Research

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  19. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus is a common complication that occurs in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who have received cytotoxic chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy. This clinical ph...

    Authors: Jie Ruan, Shuo Sun, Xin Cheng, Pengyu Han, Yinge Zhang and Dianxing Sun

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:89

    Content type: Research

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  20. LIN28B is involved in multiple cellular developmental processes, tissue inflammatory response and tumourigenesis. The association of LIN28B polymorphisms with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unknown.

    Authors: Qunying Han, Jiao Sang, Xiude Fan, Xiaoyun Wang, Lu Zeng, Xiaoge Zhang, Kun Zhang, Na Li, Yi Lv and Zhengwen Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:81

    Content type: Research

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  21. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection is a major global health issue around the world. There are approximately 15–20 million individuals infected with HDV worldwide. HDV infection usually causes increased mortalit...

    Authors: Guan-Yu Lin, Yi-Le Wu, Cheng-Si Wang, Chia-Yun Ko, Chien-Hung Chen, Pei-Jer Chen, Po-Hsin Peng and Chao-Wei Hsu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:76

    Content type: Research

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  22. The genetic variation and origin of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were poorly studied. The coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs has been described as a puzzle and has never been reported in the...

    Authors: He Liu, Liping Shen, Shuang Zhang, Feng Wang, Guomin Zhang, Zundong Yin, Feng Qiu, Xiaofeng Liang, Fuzhen Wang and Shengli Bi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:75

    Content type: Research

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  23. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) generally causes self-limiting viral hepatitis. However, in pregnant women, HEV infection can be severe and has been associated with up to 30% mortality in the third trimester. Addition...

    Authors: Chunchen Wu, Xiaoxue Wu and Jianbo Xia

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:73

    Content type: Review

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  24. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains as one of the major public health problems in the world. Type I interferon (IFN) plays an essential role in antiviral defense by induced expression of a few hundred in...

    Authors: Yujia Li, Min Yao, Xiaoqiong Duan, Haiyan Ye, Shilin Li, Limin Chen, Chunhui Yang and Yongjun Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:47

    Content type: Research

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  25. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is typically evaluated based on the current rate of positivity of anti-HCV antibody; however, HCV RNA positivity is considered the main criterion for antivir...

    Authors: Yurong Li, Lianrong Zhao, Nan Geng, Weijia Zhu, Hongbo Liu and Han Bai

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:36

    Content type: Research

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  26. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a public health issue for which an effective universal screening method is urgently needed. An oral anti-HCV test could provide a noninvasive and rapid screening strategy f...

    Authors: Lili Liu, Mingyuan Zhang, Lei Hang, Fei Kong, Hongqing Yan, Yumei Zhang, Xiangwei Feng, Yuanda Gao, Chang Wang, Heming Ma, Xu Liu, Mengru Zhan, Yu Pan, Hongqin Xu and Junqi Niu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:14

    Content type: Research

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  27. Avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV) has been associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HSS) in chickens along with asymptomatic subclinical infection in many cases. So far, four genotypes have been described...

    Authors: Tahir Iqbal, Umer Rashid, Muhammad Idrees, Amber Afroz, Saleem Kamili and Michael A. Purdy

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:142

    Content type: Research

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  28. Human pegivirus (HPgV) is structurally similar to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and was discovered 20 years ago. Its distribution, natural history and exact rule of this viral group in human hosts remain unclear. Ou...

    Authors: Hany K. Soliman, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Mahmoud N. El Rouby, Ola S. Ahmed, G. Esmat, Zeinab K. Hassan, Mohammed M. Hafez, Dina Ahmed Mehaney, Manojkumar Selvaraju, Rania Kamal Darwish, Yehia A. Osman and Abdel-Rahman N. Zekri

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:132

    Content type: Case Report

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  29. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2) is a novel target and molecule in the negative regulation of immune homeostasis. The present study aimed to investigate the dynamic expression of TI...

    Authors: Yi Liu, Jia Jin, Jian Ji, Xi-Mei Gao and Yu-Chen Fan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:120

    Content type: Research

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  30. Hepatitis B virus-related decompensated cirrhosis is difficult to cure but has a high readmission rate due to multiple complications. Our aim was to investigate the diagnostic potential value of plasma diamine...

    Authors: Feng-Cai Li, Yu-Chen Fan, Yue-Kai Li and Kai Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:115

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. Current HCV treatments are genotype specific although potential pan-genotype treatments have recently been described. Therefore, genotyping is an essential tool for the therapeutic management of HCV infection ...

    Authors: Paul Alain Tagnouokam-Ngoupo, Marie Nicole Ngoufack, Sebastien Kenmoe, Simon Frédéric Lissock, Marie Amougou-Atsama, Robert Banai, Laure Ngono and Richard Njouom

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:101

    Content type: Research

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  32. Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3 infection remain a difficult-to-cure population. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir-based regimen in genotype 3 patients in a real-world...

    Authors: Qunying Han, Xiude Fan, Xiaoyun Wang, Ye Wang, Huan Deng, Xiaoge Zhang, Kun Zhang, Na Li and Zhengwen Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:74

    Content type: Research

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  33. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) regulates the expression levels of cellular proteins by ubiquitination of protein substrates followed by their degradation via the proteasome. As a highly conserved cellul...

    Authors: Fanyun Kong, Hongjuan You, Delong Kong, Kuiyang Zheng and Renxian Tang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:73

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  34. Much evidence has demonstrated the influence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations on the clinical course of HBV infection. As large (L) protein plays a crucial role for viral entry, we hypothesized that mutati...

    Authors: Suguru Ogura, Masahiko Tameda, Kazushi Sugimoto, Makoto Ikejiri, Masanobu Usui, Masaaki Ito and Yoshiyuki Takei

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:59

    Content type: Research

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  35. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have gained much attention as cellular factors regulating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. miR-27b has been shown to regulate HCV infection in the hepatocytes via various mechanisms that h...

    Authors: Fuminori Sakurai, Rina Hashimoto, Chieko Inoue, Keisaku Wakabayashi, Tomohito Tsukamoto, Tsutomu Imaizumi, Taracena Gandara Marcos Andres, Eiko Sakai, Kanae Itsuki, Naoya Sakamoto, Takaji Wakita and Hiroyuki Mizuguchi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:58

    Content type: Research

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  36. Human pegivirus (HPgV), formally called GB virus C (GBV-C), is a member of the pegivirus genus in Flaviviridae family. High prevalence of HPgV infection is seen among sex workers, blood transfusion recipients ...

    Authors: Wubet Taklual, Shixing Tang and Wu Yue

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:50

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Interleukin (IL)-35 regulates imbalance between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper (Th) 17 cells, leading to an important modulator in autoimmune disorder, cancer, and infectious diseases. Our previous st...

    Authors: Lanlan Yang, Shengnan Jia, Xue Shao, Siqi Liu, Qian Zhang, Jie Song, Wudong Wang and Zhenjing Jin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:48

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the leading causes of liver cancer, creating enormous economic and social burdens. The Chinese government recommends routine screening of inpatients for HCV before i...

    Authors: Lili Liu, Hongqin Xu, Yue Hu, Jia Shang, Jianning Jiang, Lei Yu, Caiyan Zhao, Dazhi Zhang, Xinxin Zhang, Junfeng Li, Wei Li, Yanan Wu, Diefei Hu, Xiaofang Wang, Qian Zhao, Qiongfang Zhang…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:47

    Content type: Research

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  39. Although vaccines for hepatitis B virus (HBV) are highly effective, HBV infections in vaccinees occur. Index samples of breakthrough infections are typically anti-HBc negative but HBV DNA positive with protect...

    Authors: Mary C. Kuhns, Anne L. McNamara, Vera Holzmayer and Gavin A. Cloherty

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:43

    Content type: Research

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  40. Whether sofosbuvir is suitable for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients with severe renal impairment is inconclusive. This systematic review aims to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of SOF-based regi...

    Authors: Mingshu Li, Jun Chen, Zhixiong Fang, Yi Li and Qian Lin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:34

    Content type: Research

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  41. HCV exhibits a high genetic diversity and is classified into 7 genotypes which are further divided into 86 confirmed subtypes. However, there are multiple isolates with unassigned subtypes. We aimed to amplify...

    Authors: Bo Wang, Luise Krüger, Patrycja Machnowska, Amare Eshetu, Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Viviane Bremer, Andrea Hauser, Norbert Bannert and C.-Thomas Bock

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:28

    Content type: Short report

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  42. To examine the epidemiological trends and changes of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and the potential risk factors for severe infection in the Zhejiang eastern coastal area of China.

    Authors: Jun Tan, Yijuan Chen, Lin Wang, Ta-Chien Chan, Said Amer, Xiaobin Xu, Jian Cai, Wei Li, Xiaoqing Zheng, Mi Zhou, Shuwen Qin, Na Zhao, Ziping Miao and Shelan Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:16

    Content type: Research

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  43. Data on the treatment of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection remains limited. A comprehensive analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ombi...

    Authors: Jingjing Wu, Peng Huang, Haozhi Fan, Ting Tian, Xueshan Xia, Zuqiang Fu, Yan Wang, Xiangyu Ye, Ming Yue and Yun Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:11

    Content type: Research

    Published on: