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  1. The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in millions of infections worldwide. While the search for an effective antiviral is still ongoing, experimental ...

    Authors: Mohamed Mahdi, János András Mótyán, Zsófia Ilona Szojka, Mária Golda, Márió Miczi and József Tőzsér

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:190

    Content type: Research

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  2. Lassa fever and Ebola are characterized by non-specific initial presentations that can progress to severe multisystem illnesses with high fatality rates. Samples from additional subjects are examined to extend...

    Authors: Trevor V. Gale, John S. Schieffelin, Luis M. Branco, Robert F. Garry and Donald S. Grant

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:188

    Content type: Short report

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  3. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants, children, immunocompromised adults, and elderly individuals. Currently, there are few therapeutic optio...

    Authors: Saisai Wang, Yiting Ling, Yuanyuan Yao, Gang Zheng and Wenbin Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:187

    Content type: Research

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  4. Marek’s disease virus (MDV) causes malignant lymphomas in chickens (Marek’s disease, MD). MD is currently controlled by vaccination; however, MDV strains have a tendency to develop increased virulence. Distinc...

    Authors: Shiro Murata, Yuka Machida, Masayoshi Isezaki, Naoya Maekawa, Tomohiro Okagawa, Satoru Konnai and Kazuhiko Ohashi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:186

    Content type: Research

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  5. To investigate distributions of cervical lesions and factors associated with the severity of the cervical lesions in high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) positive women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significa...

    Authors: Zhiling Wang, Ying Gu, Hui Wang, Junyu Chen, Yawen Zheng, Baoxia Cui and Xingsheng Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:185

    Content type: Research

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  6. The study of transient gene expression in cassava plants during virus infection using existing protocols is laborious and may take approximately fifteen weeks due to cassava’s recalcitrance to transformation. ...

    Authors: Patience Chatukuta and Marie Emma Christine Rey

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:184

    Content type: Research

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  7. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a catastrophic burden to global healthcare systems. The fast spread of the etiologic agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), h...

    Authors: Wai Sing Chan, Chun Hang Au, Ho Yin Lam, Candy Ling Na Wang, Dona Ngar-Yin Ho, Yuk Man Lam, Daniel Ka Wing Chu, Leo Lit Man Poon, Tsun Leung Chan, Jonpaul Sze-Tsing Zee, Edmond Shiu Kwan Ma and Bone Siu Fai Tang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:183

    Content type: Short report

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  8. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses have undergone rapid evolution, and in recent years the complementary and antagonistic effects of HA and NA have gathered more attentions; however, the effects of co-occurring mu...

    Authors: Yafen Liu, Yue Wang, Baiyi Liu, Xu Cong, Ying Ji, Xiaolin Guo and Yan Gao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:182

    Content type: Research

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  9. African swine fever (ASF) leads to high mortality in domestic pigs and wild boar and is caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV). Currently, no vaccine is commercially available for prevention, and the e...

    Authors: Zhihua Feng, Jianghua Chen, Wangwang Liang, Wenzhi Chen, Zhaolong Li, Qi Chen and Shaoli Cai

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:180

    Content type: Research

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  10. Although, there is a variable burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women infected with HIV in developing countries, there are few studies that attempted to surmise such variable evidences. This review aimed...

    Authors: Agajie Likie Bogale, Nega Berhe Belay, Girmay Medhin and Jemal Haidar Ali

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:179

    Content type: Review

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  11. The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread across the world. Hence, there is an urgent need for rapid, simple, and accurate tests to diagnose severe acute respiratory syndrome coronav...

    Authors: Chutikarn Chaimayo, Bualan Kaewnaphan, Nattaya Tanlieng, Niracha Athipanyasilp, Rujipas Sirijatuphat, Methee Chayakulkeeree, Nasikarn Angkasekwinai, Ruengpung Sutthent, Nattawut Puangpunngam, Theerawoot Tharmviboonsri, Orawan Pongraweewan, Suebwong Chuthapisith, Yongyut Sirivatanauksorn, Wannee Kantakamalakul and Navin Horthongkham

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:177

    Content type: Research

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  12. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes significant morbidity and mortality globally primarily due to its ability to cause hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Kenya National Blood Transfusion S...

    Authors: Patrick Okoti Aluora, Margaret Wangui Muturi and George Gachara

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:176

    Content type: Research

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  13. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Mohsen Keshavarz, Mir Saeed Ebrahimzadeh, Seyed Mohammad Miri, Hassan Dianat-Moghadam, Seyedeh Sara Ghorbanhosseini, Seyed Reza Mohebbi, Hossein Keyvani and Amir Ghaemi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:175

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2020 17:64

  14. Influenza virus infection is among the most detrimental threats to the health of humans and some animals, infecting millions of people annually all around the world and in many thousands of cases giving rise t...

    Authors: Ailar Sabbaghi, Seyed Mohammad Miri, Mohsen Keshavarz, Mehran Mahooti, Arghavan Zebardast and Amir Ghaemi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:174

    Content type: Review

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  15. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article. The conclusions of this paper have been corroborated by additional data.

    Authors: Johanna Signer, Hulda R. Jonsdottir, Werner C. Albrich, Marc Strasser, Roland Züst, Sarah Ryter, Rahel Ackermann-Gäumann, Nicole Lenz, Denise Siegrist, Andreas Suter, Roland Schoop and Olivier B. Engler

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:172

    Content type: Author Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2020 17:136

  16. The SureX HPV genotyping test (SureX HPV test), which targets the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 genes was compared with the Cobas 4800 and Venus HPV tests for detecting 14 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types in cl...

    Authors: Baojun Wei, Ping Mei, Shengkai Huang, Xueting Yu, Tong Zhi, Guojing Wang, Xiaotian Xu, Lin Xiao, Xin Dong and Wei Cui

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:171

    Content type: Research

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  17. There is plenitude of information on HIV infection among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care (ANC) in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the epidemiology of HBV–HIV co-infections in the same cohort is not clea...

    Authors: Hussein Mukasa Kafeero, Dorothy Ndagire, Ponsiano Ocama, Abdul Walusansa and Hakim Sendagire

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:170

    Content type: Research

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  18. In Tianjin, China, there is a relatively high prevalence of HIV in men who have sex with men (MSM). The number of HIV cases in Tianjin is also increasing. We investigated the HIV molecular transmission network...

    Authors: Minna Zheng, Maohe Yu, Shaohui Cheng, Ning Zhou, Tielin Ning, Long Li, Fangning Zhao, Xuan Zhao, Jingjin Zhu and Guohong Jiang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:169

    Content type: Research

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  19. Papillomaviruses (PVs) infecting artiodactyls are very diverse, and only second in number to PVs infecting primates. PVs associated to lesions in economically important ruminant species have been isolated from...

    Authors: Anouk Willemsen, Alexander van den Boom, Julienne Dietz, Seval Bilge Dagalp, Firat Dogan, Ignacio G. Bravo, Anja Ehrhardt and Eric Ehrke-Schulz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:167

    Content type: Research

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  20. Chronic active Epstein–Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is a type of lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by chronic or recurrent infectious mononucleosis (IM)-like symptoms, which can have less-frequent cli...

    Authors: Haijuan Xiao, Bing Hu, Rongmu Luo, Huili Hu, Junmei Zhang, Weiying Kuang, Rui Zhang, Li Li and Gang Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:166

    Content type: Case Report

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  21. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes severe complications in congenitally infected newborns and non-immunocompetent individuals. Developing an effective vaccine is a major public heal...

    Authors: Krishnan Nair Balakrishnan, Ashwaq Ahmed Abdullah, Jamilu Abubakar Bala, Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Mustapha Mohamed Noordin and Mohd Lila Mohd-Azmi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:164

    Content type: Research

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  22. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes enteric infection in piglets, characterized by vomiting, severe diarrhea and dehydration, and the mortality in suckling piglets is often high up to 100%. Vacci...

    Authors: Fujie Zhao, Lintao Liu, Menglong Xu, Xiangli Shu, Lanlan Zheng and Zhanyong Wei

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:163

    Content type: Research

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  23. We aimed to describe the features of 220 nonemergency (mild or common type) COVID-19 patients from a shelter hospital, as well as evaluate the efficiency of antiviral drug, Arbidol in their disease progressions.

    Authors: Wei Gao, Si Chen, Kun Wang, Rongzhang Chen, Qian Guo, Jingjing Lu, Xiaodong Wu, Yanan He, Qiaoyun Yan, Shengyun Wang, Feilong Wang, Li Jin, Jing Hua and Qiang Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:162

    Content type: Short report

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  24. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most important causes of cancer. It can play a role in cervical and extra-cervical cancers. Penile cancer is rare, even if an increasing trend was recently re...

    Authors: Narcisa Muresu, Giovanni Sotgiu, Laura Saderi, Illari Sechi, Antonio Cossu, Vincenzo Marras, Marta Meloni, Marianna Martinelli, Clementina Cocuzza, Francesco Tanda and Andrea Piana

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:161

    Content type: Short report

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  25. Fast, reliable and easy to handle methods are required to facilitate urgently needed point-of-care testing (POCT) in the current coronavirus pandemic. Life-threatening severe acute respiratory syndrome coronav...

    Authors: Lena Mautner, Christin-Kirsty Baillie, Heike Marie Herold, Wolfram Volkwein, Patrick Guertler, Ute Eberle, Nikolaus Ackermann, Andreas Sing, Melanie Pavlovic, Ottmar Goerlich, Ulrich Busch, Lars Wassill, Ingrid Huber and Armin Baiker

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:160

    Content type: Methodology

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  26. Aimed to summarize the characteristics of chest CT imaging in Chinese hospitalized patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) to provide reliable evidence for further guiding clinical routine.

    Authors: Haitao Yang, Yuzhu Lan, Xiujuan Yao, Sheng Lin and Baosong Xie

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:159

    Content type: Research

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  27. Wheat yellow dwarf virus disease is infected by barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), which causes leaf yellowing and dwarfing symptoms in wheat, thereby posing a serious threat to China's food production. The inf...

    Authors: Chuan Shen, Caiyan Wei, Jingyuan Li, Xudong Zhang, Qinrong Zhong, Yue Li, Bixin Bai and Yunfeng Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:158

    Content type: Research

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  28. Street rabies virus (RABV) usually infects hosts at peripheral sites and migrates from motor or sensory nerves to the central nervous system. Several studies have found that inflammation is mild in a mouse mod...

    Authors: Shu Qing Liu, Yuan Xie, Xin Gao, Qian Wang and Wu Yang Zhu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:157

    Content type: Research

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  29. Although acute gastroenteritis (AGE) has been reported as a common infectious disease in children, there is scarce information about enterovirus (EV) circulating associated with AGE cases in Brazil. The purpos...

    Authors: Raiana Scerni Machado, Ivanildo Pedro de Sousa Jr., Jacqueline Cortinhas Monteiro, James Lima Ferreira, Jainara Cristina dos Santos Alves and Fernando Neto Tavares

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:156

    Content type: Short report

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  30. This study aims to screen the male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection status and genotyping in Qingcheng District, Qingyuan City, Guangdong Province, China to provide a reference basis for formulating preven...

    Authors: Wei-Guo Yin, Meng Yang, Lei Peng, Yan-Mei Liu, Bin Cheng, Shu-Xia Xuan, Chen Chen and Feng-Jun Tan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:155

    Content type: Research

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  31. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, previously named 2019-nCov), a novel coronavirus that emerged in China in December 2019 and was dec...

    Authors: Sumanth Khadke, Nayla Ahmed, Nausheen Ahmed, Ryan Ratts, Shine Raju, Molly Gallogly, Marcos de Lima and Muhammad Rizwan Sohail

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:154

    Content type: Review

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  32. Human pegivirus (HPgV)—formerly known as GBV-C—is a member of the Flaviviridae family and belongs to the species Pegivirus C. It is a non-pathogenic virus and is transmitted among humans mainly through the exposu...

    Authors: Aniel de Sarom Negrão Silva, Clayton Pereira Silva, Rafael Ribeiro Barata, Pedro Victor Reis da Silva, Patrícia Danin Jordão Monteiro, Letícia Lamarão, Rommel Mário Rodríguez Burbano, Márcio Roberto Teixeira Nunes and Patrícia Danielle Lima de Lima

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:153

    Content type: Research

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  33. Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) of the genus Parapoxvirus in the family Poxviridae causes pseudocowpox in cattle worldwide and presents a zoonotic concern. Most poxviruses produce diseases of similar clinical signs in ...

    Authors: Maureen Wakwamba Ziba, Chanda Chitala, Tirumala Bharani K. Settypalli, Malama Mumba, Giovanni Cattoli, Paul Fandamu and Charles Euloge Lamien

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:152

    Content type: Research

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  34. Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe encephalitis and respiratory disease with a high mortality rate in humans. During large outbreaks of the viral disease, serological te...

    Authors: Shumpei Watanabe, Shuetsu Fukushi, Toshihiko Harada, Masayuki Shimojima, Tomoki Yoshikawa, Takeshi Kurosu, Yoshihiro Kaku, Shigeru Morikawa and Masayuki Saijo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:151

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Erlin Wang, Yunshuang Ye, Ke Zhang, Jinlong Yang, Daohua Gong, Jianhua Zhang, Shijun Hong, Huan Zhang, Lihong Li, Guijun Chen, Liping Yang, Jianmei Liu, Hanyu Cao, Ting Du, Nigel W. Fraser, Le Cheng…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:150

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2020 17:95

  36. In plants, the RNA silencing system functions as an antiviral defense mechanism following its induction with virus-derived double-stranded RNAs. This occurs through the action of RNA silencing components, incl...

    Authors: Joon Kwon, Atsushi Kasai, Tetsuo Maoka, Chikara Masuta, Teruo Sano and Kenji S. Nakahara

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:149

    Content type: Research

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  37. The first cases of African swine fever (ASF) were detected in the Lithuanian wild boar population in 2014. Since then, the disease spread slowly through the whole country, affecting both, wild boar and domesti...

    Authors: Arnoldas Pautienius, Katja Schulz, Christoph Staubach, Juozas Grigas, Ruta Zagrabskaite, Jurate Buitkuviene, Rolandas Stankevicius, Zaneta Streimikyte, Vaidas Oberauskas, Dainius Zienius, Algirdas Salomskas, Carola Sauter-Louis and Arunas Stankevicius

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:148

    Content type: Short report

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  38. The vaginal microbiota has been reported to be associated with HPV infection and cervical cancer. This study was performed to compare the vaginal microbiota at two timepoints in women performing self-sampling ...

    Authors: Malin Berggrund, Inger Gustavsson, Riina Aarnio, Julia Hedlund Lindberg, Karin Sanner, Ingrid Wikström, Stefan Enroth, Ignas Bunikis, Matts Olovsson and Ulf Gyllensten

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:147

    Content type: Research

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  39. An effective vaccine that prevents disease caused by hantaviruses is a global public health priority, but up to now, no vaccine has been approved for worldwide use. Therefore, novel vaccines with high prophyla...

    Authors: Ying Ma, Kang Tang, Yusi Zhang, Chunmei Zhang, Linfeng Cheng, Fanglin Zhang, Ran Zhuang, Boquan Jin and Yun Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:146

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. The basic reproduction number (R0) is the number of cases directly caused by an infected individual throughout his infectious period. R0 is used to determine the ability of a disease to spread within a given p...

    Authors: Samath Dharmaratne, Supun Sudaraka, Ishanya Abeyagunawardena, Kasun Manchanayake, Mahen Kothalawala and Wasantha Gunathunga

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:144

    Content type: Research

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  41. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by a pathogen called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a pandemic. ...

    Authors: Mulugeta Kiros, Henok Andualem, Teklehaimanot Kiros, Wasihun Hailemichael, Sisay Getu, Alene Geteneh, Derbie Alemu and Woldaregay Erku Abegaz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:143

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  42. Infections caused by protozoan parasites burden the world with huge costs in terms of human and animal health. Most parasitic diseases caused by protozoans are neglected, particularly those associated with pov...

    Authors: Paul Barrow, Jean Claude Dujardin, Nicolas Fasel, Alex D. Greenwood, Klaus Osterrieder, George Lomonossoff, Pier Luigi Fiori, Robert Atterbury, Matteo Rossi and Marco Lalle

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:142

    Content type: Review

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  43. The COVID-19 causing coronavirus is an enveloped RNA virus that utilizes an enzyme RNA dependent RNA polymerase for its replication. Favipiravir (FVP) triphosphate, a purine nucleoside analog, inhibits that en...

    Authors: Dhan Bahadur Shrestha, Pravash Budhathoki, Sitaram Khadka, Prajwol Bikram Shah, Nisheem Pokharel and Prama Rashmi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:141

    Content type: Research

    Published on: