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  1. As genetic analysis becomes less expensive, more comprehensive diagnostics such as whole genome sequencing (WGS) will become available to the veterinary practitioner. The WGS elucidates more about porcine repr...

    Authors: Jessica Risser, Matthew Ackerman, Robert Evelsizer, Stephen Wu, Byungjoon Kwon and James Mark Hammer

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:206

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  2. Hendra virus (HeV) has caused lethal disease outbreaks in humans and horses in Australia. Flying foxes are the wildlife reservoir from which the virus was first isolated in 1996. Following a heat stress mortal...

    Authors: Jianning Wang, Danielle E. Anderson, Kim Halpin, Xiao Hong, Honglei Chen, Som Walker, Stacey Valdeter, Brenda van der Heide, Matthew J. Neave, John Bingham, Dwane O’Brien, Debbie Eagles, Lin-Fa Wang and David T. Williams

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:197

    Content type: Research

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  3. Co-infections have a key role in virus transmission in wild reservoir hosts. We investigated the simultaneous presence of astroviruses, coronaviruses, and paramyxoviruses in bats from Madagascar, Mayotte, Moza...

    Authors: Axel O. G. Hoarau, Steven M. Goodman, Dana Al Halabi, Beza Ramasindrazana, Erwan Lagadec, Gildas Le Minter, Marie Köster, Andréa Dos Santos, M. Corrie Schoeman, Eduardo S. Gudo, Patrick Mavingui and Camille Lebarbenchon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:205

    Content type: Short report

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  4. Arbovirus surveillance and recurrence of outbreaks in Kenya continues to reveal the re-emergence of viruses of public health importance. This calls for sustained efforts in early detection and characterization...

    Authors: Hellen Koka, Joel Lutomiah, Solomon Langat, Edith Koskei, Albert Nyunja, James Mutisya, Francis Mulwa, Samuel Owaka, Victor Ofula, Samson Konongoi, Fredrick Eyase and Rosemary Sang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:204

    Content type: Research

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  5. Chikungunya fever, caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), has become a major global health concern, causing unexpected large outbreaks in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. CHIKV is not indigenous to Ch...

    Authors: Shaofu Qiu, Jinpeng Guo, Peihan Li, Peng Li, Xinying Du, Rongzhang Hao, Chaojie Yang, Qi Wang, Hongbo Liu, Haoran Zhang, Sai Tian, Hua Shi, Liang Wen, Daizhi An, Xiaocui Yang, Xiaoyuan An…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:203

    Content type: Short report

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  6. The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on existing respiratory pathogens in circulation remains uncertain. This study aimed to assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the prevalence of respiratory pathogens among hospitalized ch...

    Authors: Li Li, Heping Wang, Ailiang Liu, Rongjun Wang, Tingting Zhi, Yuejie Zheng, Yanming Bao, Yunsheng Chen and Wenjian Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:202

    Content type: Research

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  7. Several studies on gamma-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-Flu) have revealed its superior efficacy for inducing homologous and heterologous virus-specific immunity. However, many inactivated vaccines, notably i...

    Authors: Ailar Sabbaghi, Masoud Malek, Sara Abdolahi, Seyed Mohammad Miri, Leila Alizadeh, Mehdi Samadi, Seyed Reza Mohebbi and Amir Ghaemi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:201

    Content type: Research

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  8. Recent genome sequence technology has revealed a novel type of genetic rearrangement referred to as complex structural variations (SVs). Previous studies have elucidated the complex SVs in human hepatitis B vi...

    Authors: Yoshihito Nagura, Kei Fujiwara, Kentaro Matsuura, Etsuko Iio, Yasuhito Tanaka and Hiromi Kataoka

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:200

    Content type: Research

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  9. Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is one of the most important comorbidities in patients with hereditary bleeding disorders (HBD). The present study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of direct-acting antiviral age...

    Authors: Heidar Sharafi, Bita Behnava, Alireza Azizi-saraji, Ali Namvar, Ali Anvar, Shima Salimi and Seyed Moayed Alavian

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:199

    Content type: Research

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  10. The H9N2 subtype of avian influenza virus (AIV) has become the most widespread subtype of AIV among birds in Asia, which threatens the poultry industry and human health. Therefore, it is important to establish...

    Authors: Yixin Xiao, Fan Yang, Fumin Liu, Hangping Yao, Nanping Wu and Haibo Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:198

    Content type: Research

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  11. GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4) has been reported as a potential target of gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is well known that the main cause of HCC is the chronic infection of hepatitis B vi...

    Authors: Xiaoqin Lv, Xia Xiang, Yue Wu, Yang Liu, Ruqing Xu, Qin Xiang and Guoqi Lai

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:196

    Content type: Research

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  12. Human adenovirus (HAdV) had been recognized as one of the most common enteric viruses associated with acute diarrhea in children. The present study was carried out to demonstrate the molecular and epidemiologi...

    Authors: Deyu Huang, Zheng Wang, Guanyou Zhang and Lintao Sai

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:195

    Content type: Research

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  13. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a devastating animal disease. Anti-non-structural protein (NSP) antibody detection is very important for confirming suspected cases, evaluating the prevalence of infection, cert...

    Authors: Wei Liu, Guanglei Zhang, Sicheng Yang, Junhui Li, Zhan Gao, Sudan Ge, Huihui Yang, Junjun Shao and Huiyun Chang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:193

    Content type: Methodology

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  14. In 2017, the South African National Department of Health (NDoH) Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Policy was revised. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing on self-collected samples may offer improved screen...

    Authors: Teboho Amelia Tiiti, Tebogo Loraine Mashishi, Varsetile Varster Nkwinika, Ina Benoy, Selokela Gloria Selabe, Johannes Bogers and Ramokone Lisbeth Lebelo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:192

    Content type: Research

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  15. Human adenoviruse (HAdV) is a major pathogen of paediatric respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Mutation or recombination of HAdV genes may cause changes in its pathogenicity and transmission. We described the...

    Authors: Yiman Huang, Chao Wang, Fenlian Ma, Qiong Guo, Lihong Yao, Aijun Chen, Xiaoyi Luo and Lishu Zheng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:191

    Content type: Research

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  16. Despite the fact that the chikungunya viral infection is a neglected disease, complications such as hemorrhagic fever, arthritis, and lymphopenia remain a health concern. The aim of this study was to determine...

    Authors: Abdulrahim R. Hakami, Abdullah A. Alshamrani, Mohamad Alqahtani, Yasser Alraey, Razan A. Alhefzi, Sultan Alasmari, Mohamed Makkawi, Gasim Dobie, Mushtaq Mir, Mohamed Alshahrani, Ayed Dera, Mohammed Alfaifi, Mesfer Al Shahrani, Ahmad Matari and Ali Essa Asiry

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:190

    Content type: Research

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  17. The importance of clinicolaboratory characteristics of COVID-19 made us report our findings in the Alborz province according to the latest National Guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 in outp...

    Authors: Farnaz Karimi, Mahshid Saleh, Amir Abbas Vaezi, Mostafa Qorbani and Foroogh Alborzi Avanaki

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:189

    Content type: Research

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  18. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a key factor for the development and progression of cervical cancer. We sought to identify the type-specific HPV prevalence by cervical cytology and assess di...

    Authors: Jaehyun Seong, Sangmi Ryou, JeongGyu Lee, Myeongsu Yoo, Sooyoung Hur and Byeong-Sun Choi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:188

    Content type: Research

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  19. Flaviviruses are representative arboviruses carried by arthropods and/or vertebrates; these viruses can pose a public health concern in many countries. By contrast, it is known that a novel virus group called ...

    Authors: Tomo Daidoji, Ronald Enrique Morales Vargas, Katsuro Hagiwara, Yasuha Arai, Yohei Watanabe, Keisuke Nishioka, Fumi Murakoshi, Kotaro Garan, Hiroki Sadakane and Takaaki Nakaya

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:187

    Content type: Research

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  20. Authors: Bo Yang, Chaochao Shen, Dajun Zhang, Ting Zhang, Xijuan Shi, Jinke Yang, Yu Hao, Dengshuai Zhao, Huimei Cui, Xingguo Yuan, Xuehui Chen, Keshan Zhang, Haixue Zheng and Xiangtao Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:186

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2021 18:170

  21. The phenylalanine ammonia lyase genes play crucial role in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we characterized the role of PAL genes in increasing resistance to the Cassava brown streak...

    Authors: Siji Kavil, Gerald Otti, Sophie Bouvaine, Andrew Armitage and Midatharahally N. Maruthi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:184

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  22. The host-unrestricted, non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and the serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) are major causative agents of food-borne gastroenteritis, and the host-re...

    Authors: Marta Kuźmińska-Bajor, Paulina Śliwka, Maciej Ugorski, Paweł Korzeniowski, Aneta Skaradzińska, Maciej Kuczkowski, Magdalena Narajaczyk, Alina Wieliczko and Rafał Kolenda

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:183

    Content type: Research

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  23. Traditional medicines based on herbal extracts have been proposed as affordable treatments for patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviru...

    Authors: Chuanxiong Nie, Jakob Trimpert, Sooyeon Moon, Rainer Haag, Kerry Gilmore, Benedikt B. Kaufer and Peter H. Seeberger

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:182

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  24. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) that affects the effectiveness of the first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen is becoming prevalent worldwide. However, its prevalence and transmission among HIV-1 tre...

    Authors: Yun Lan, Linghua Li, Xiang He, Fengyu Hu, Xizi Deng, Weiping Cai, Junbin Li, Xuemei Ling, Qinghong Fan, Xiaoli Cai, Liya Li, Feng Li and Xiaoping Tang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:181

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. Covid-19 has the respiratory tract as the main target of infection, and patients present mainly dyspnea, pneumonia, dry cough, and fever. Nevertheless, organs outside the respiratory tract had been reported in...

    Authors: Natália Lima Pessoa, Aline Almeida Bentes, Andrea Lucchesi de Carvalho, Thaís Bárbara de Souza Silva, Pedro Augusto Alves, Erik Vinicius de Sousa Reis, Tayse Andrade Rodrigues, Erna Geessien Kroon and Marco Antônio Campos

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:180

    Content type: Case Report

    Published on:

  26. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19 pandemic, has infected more than 179 million people worldwide. Testing of infected individuals is crucial for ident...

    Authors: Vijay Lakshmi Jamwal, Natish Kumar, Rahul Bhat, Piyush Singh Jamwal, Kaurab Singh, Sandeep Dogra, Abhishek Kulkarni, Bhaskar Bhadra, Manish R. Shukla, Saurabh Saran, Santanu Dasgupta, Ram A. Vishwakarma and Sumit G. Gandhi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:178

    Content type: Research

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  27. The development of an influenza RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitor is required; therefore, a method for evaluating the activity of influenza RdRp needs to be developed. The current method uses an ul...

    Authors: Yuka Horio, Mototada Shichiri and Yuji Isegawa

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:177

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  28. Viral diseases cause significant damage to crop yield and quality. While fungi- and bacteria-induced diseases can be controlled by pesticides, no effective approaches are available to control viruses with chem...

    Authors: Md. Shamim Akhter, Kenji S. Nakahara and Chikara Masuta

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:176

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  29. Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes two diseases including Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL cancer) and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TS...

    Authors: Mohadeseh Zarei Ghobadi, Rahman Emamzadeh, Majid Teymoori-Rad and Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:175

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Human rhinovirus (HRV) is one of the major viruses of acute respiratory tract disease among infants and young children. This work aimed to understand the epidemiological and phylogenetic features of HRV in Gua...

    Authors: Wanwei Li, Bo Yu, Jijian Zhou, Yanlan Wang, Bao Xue, Jialong Pan, Yanhong Ran, Xiaoping Yang, Xiaoping Wang, Fang Yang and Hongjian Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:174

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. Zoonotic orthopoxvirus infections continue to represent a threat to human health. The disease caused by distinct orthopoxviruses differs in terms of symptoms and severity, which may be explained by the unique ...

    Authors: Daniel Bourquain, Livia Schrick, Bernd Karsten Tischer, Klaus Osterrieder, Lars Schaade and Andreas Nitsche

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:173

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  32. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is a garlic-derived organosulfur compound. As it has been shown to have anti-viral activity, we hypothesized that it may alleviate infections caused by H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV...

    Authors: Le Ming, Zhihui Li, Xiaofang Li, Ling Tang and Guimei He

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:171

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a highly lethal virus that can infect porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). Since ASFV, China has dealt with a heavy blow to the pig industry. However, the effect of infectio...

    Authors: Bo Yang, Chaochao Shen, Dajun Zhang, Ting Zhang, Xijuan Shi, Jinke Yang, Yu Hao, Dengshuai Zhao, Huimei Cui, Xingguo Yuan, Xuehui Chen, Keshan Zhang, Haixue Zheng and Xiangtao Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:170

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:186

  34. Transmission of all known pathogenic orthohantaviruses (family Hantaviridae) usually occurs via inhalation of aerosols contaminated with viral particles derived from infected rodents and organ manifestation of in...

    Authors: Stefan Hägele, Christian Nusshag, Alexander Müller, Alexandra Baumann, Martin Zeier and Ellen Krautkrämer

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:169

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. A growing number of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is being identified worldwide, potentially impacting the effectiveness of current vaccines. We report the data obtained in several Italian regions involved in t...

    Authors: Alessia Lai, Annalisa Bergna, Stefano Menzo, Gianguglielmo Zehender, Sara Caucci, Valeria Ghisetti, Francesca Rizzo, Fabrizio Maggi, Francesco Cerutti, Giorgio Giurato, Alessandro Weisz, Chiara Turchi, Bianca Bruzzone, Francesca Ceccherini Silberstein, Nicola Clementi, Annapaola Callegaro…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:168

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  36. Poxviruses within the Capripoxvirus, Orthopoxvirus, and Parapoxvirus genera can infect livestock, with the two former having zoonotic importance. In addition, they induce similar clinical symptoms in common host ...

    Authors: Boitumelo Magret Modise, Tirumala Bharani Kumar Settypalli, Tebogo Kgotlele, Dingrong Xue, Kebonyemodisa Ntesang, Kago Kumile, Ivancho Naletoski, John Frederick Nyange, Carter Thanda, Kenny Nametso Macheng, Chandapiwa Marobela-Raborokgwe, Gerrit Johannes Viljoen, Giovanni Cattoli and Charles Euloge Lamien

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:167

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. The emergence of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and more recently, the independent evolution of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants has generated renewed interest i...

    Authors: Jalen Singh, Pranav Pandit, Andrew G. McArthur, Arinjay Banerjee and Karen Mossman

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:166

    Content type: Review

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  38. Canine distemper caused by canine distemper virus that belongs to the Morbillivirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family is still a global epidemic significant infectious disease, especially in pet dogs in China a...

    Authors: Yaoqian Pan, Shuai Wang, Peng Li, Feng Yue, Yanfang Zhang, Bo Pan and Xingyou Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:165

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a highly infectious pathogen associated with hand, foot and mouth disease, herpangina, and various neurological complications, so it is important for the early detection and treatmen...

    Authors: Xinran Zou, Jing Wu, Jiaqi Gu, Li Shen and Lingxiang Mao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:164

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Ticks (class Arachnida, subclass Acari) are vectors of transmitting a broad range of pathogenic microorganisms, protozoa, and viruses affecting humans and animals. Liaoning Province is rich in forests where diffe...

    Authors: Zijun Yang, Ju Zhang, Shixing Yang, Xiaochun Wang, Quan Shen, Guangming Sun, Hao Wang and Wen Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:163

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related neurologic complications have a diverse presentation in transplant recipients, creating diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for clinicians. In this case series, we report uni...

    Authors: Mohamed Ridha, Dylan G. Jones, David P. Lerner, Michal Vytopil, Barbara Voetsch, Joseph D. Burns, Anil Ramineni and Pooja Raibagkar

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:162

    Content type: Case Report

    Published on:

  42. As frequent viral outbreaks continue to pose threat to public health, the unavailability of antiviral drugs and challenges associated with vaccine development underscore the need for antiviral drugs discovery ...

    Authors: Omonike O. Ogbole, Toluwanimi E. Akinleye, Abraham O. Nkumah, Aminat O. Awogun, Alfred F. Attah, Moses O. Adewumi and Adekunle J. Adeniji

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:161

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. Hepatitis E is an enteric and zoonotic disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) that is mainly transmitted via the faecal-oral route through contaminated food or the environment. The virus is an emerging infe...

    Authors: Fufa Dawo Bari, Haimanot Belete Wodaje, Umer Said, Hika Waktole, Melaku Sombo, Samson Leta, Tesfaye Rufael Chibsa and Paul Plummer

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:160

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. The multifaceted non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) taken during the COVID-19 pandemic not only decrease the spreading of the SARS-CoV-2, but have impact on the prevalence of other viruses. This study aim...

    Authors: Pengcheng Liu, Menghua Xu, Lingfeng Cao, Liyun Su, Lijuan Lu, Niuniu Dong, Ran Jia, Xunhua Zhu and Jin Xu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:159

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have shown prospects in advanced and metastatic cancer, and many clinical trials have been carried out. To compare OV therapies comprehensively and provide a categorized profile and ran...

    Authors: Ruiyang Xie, Xingang Bi, Bingqing Shang, Aiping Zhou, Hongzhe Shi and Jianzhong Shou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:158

    Content type: Research

    Published on: